Design is too often designer-centric instead of user-centric, argues Donald Norman in the sixth chapter of his book The Design of Everyday Things. Norman lays out the case that anyone acting as a designer – whether programmer, illustrator or developer – has an unconscious tendency to be device-oriented rather than task-oriented; that is, designers "become experts with the device they are designing," while users are "often expert at the task they are trying to perform with the device." Instead, designers should place more attention on usability, which is not an easy task given the many challenges they face in terms of demands from profit-driven clients, users with special needs and users who seek features they don't needs. Indeed, as Norman admits, there is no one size fits all when it comes to creating user-centric designs, but flexibility helps.
One ever feels the echo of Steve Jobs' design philosophies echoed throughout Norman's work, particularly in his description of the "two deadly temptations for the designer." Designers too often fall prey to the allure of what he calls "creeping featurism" –– the tendency to pile on endless features to a device that needlessly complicate its use –– as well as the "worshipping of false images," referring to the temptation of valuing technological flashiness over end usability. Particularly in Apple's' later consumer entertainment products, beginning with the iPod, we see an acute awareness of these dangers taken into account. Unlike its rival digital music devices at the time, the iPod valued usability over featurism, and prized immersion over control.